International Frameworks

Core human rights frameworks

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

International convention on the protection of the rights of all migrant workers and members of their families (1990)

Convention on the rights of the child (1989) and its optional protocols on the involvement of children in armed conflicts and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (2000)

Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women (1979)

International covenant on economic, social and cultural rights (1966)

International covenant on civil and political rights (1966)

International convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination (1965)

Geneva conventions and related protocols

Geneva Conventions and their additional protocols (1949)

1951 Refugee convention

Convention (1951) and additional protocol (1976) relating to the status of refugees

International Labour Organisation

Profits and Poverty: The Economics of Forced Labour. Report (2014)

Convention concerning the worst forms of child labour C182 (1999)

Convention concerning migrations in abusive conditions and the promotion of equality of opportunity and treatment of migrant workers C143 (1975)

Recommendation concerning migrant workers No.151 (1975)

Discrimination (employment and occupation) convention C111 (1958)

Protection of migrant workers (underdeveloped countries) recommendation No.100 (1955)

Migration for employment convention C97 (1949)

Migration for employment recommendation No.86 (1949)

Conventions 29 and 105 on Forced Labour (1957)


Convention against transnational organised crime and its protocols to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons and against the smuggling of migrants by land, air and sea (2000)

Declaration on the rights of persons belonging to national, ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities (1992)

Guiding principles on internal displacement (1998)

Declaration on the human rights of individuals who are not nationals in the country in which they live (1985)

Slavery Convention (1926)

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966)

Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)

Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (2000)

Convention against Transnational Organised Crime 2004 (UNTOC)

Optional Protocol (to UNTOC) to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol)

Council of Europe

European Convention on Human Rights

Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings

European Union Directive on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA

Regional Instruments


American convention on human rights and its additional protocol (1988)

Cartagena declaration on refugees (1984)

American declaration on the rights and duties of man (1948)


African charter on the rights and welfare of the child (1990)

African charter on human and peoples’ rights (1981)

Convention governing the specific aspects of refugee problems in Africa (1969)


European social charter (Revised 1996)

Convention on the participation of foreigners in public life at local level (1992)

European convention on the legal status of migrant workers (1977)